Friday, Apr 20, 2018
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The whole grain story, made simple

Bolivians can't afford to buy their own Quinoa because we’re willing to pay so much for it.


Alicia Ross for Kitchen Scoop Enlarge

You can’t mention quinoa without hearing about the plight of the Bolivians who can no longer afford to buy their crop because we’re willing to pay so much for it. The word “rice” has become loaded: There are more colors (red? black?) and types (extra-long brown Basmati?) than those of us who grew up knowing only Carolina and Uncle Ben’s could have ever imagined. The other day I heard half a talk show devoted to what couscous really is. (Pasta, and I don’t know why it was so hard to figure out.)

It gets more complicated. Manufacturers claim processed foods are, or contain, whole grains when it isn’t true. Debates rage about the relative benefits of “whole grain” pasta versus the real thing. Then there’s the “are whole grains even good for you?” thing.

Feh. You shouldn’t care. They’re fantastic.

What they’re not is a panacea, or a substitute for anything except the hyper-processed grains that replaced them in the first place. But at this point, the widespread, almost universal availability of farro, quinoa, and millet alone would be more important and valuable than all of the gorgeous heirloom beans that have been rediscovered in the last decade. Legumes we already had; these are new to most of us.

Throw in spelt, kamut, wheat berries, and brown rice, along with the semi-processed bulgur (cracked and steamed wheat) and steel-cut oats, as well as couscous, which is usually treated as if it were a grain, and kasha (buckwheat groats, which few people seem to like), and it’s a new world out there.

This isn’t even a complete list. They are all filling, chewy, satisfying, delicious options that complement both meat and vegetables as perfectly as, well, white rice. With more flavor, more texture, more fiber.

These questions seem to baffle many people: 1) How do you cook them? And 2) What do you do with them?

These are the answers, in short: Until they’re done. And whatever you’d like.

Glibness aside, the first answer is for real. Whole grains don’t all taste the same — far from it. But they all act pretty much the same, so you can treat them all, including bulgur and steel-cut oats, pretty much the same way: Cover them in abundant salted water and simmer until tender but still chewy. (There are occasions in which you’ll want to overcook whole grains, chief among them that their burst kernels make a good binder. But that’s another story.)

Cooking can take as little as five minutes (for bulgur) or as long as an hour (for wheat berries), but that doesn’t matter. If they threaten to dry out, you add water, preferably boiling, so as not to slow down the cooking, but don’t worry if you forget. If they’re soupy when you’re done, drain them. There are a zillion other techniques, but you don’t need to know them.

As to what happens next, I’d nominate grain salads as the way to go, especially this time of year.

There is one mistake many of us have made in producing grain salads: We’ve not only featured grains, we’ve downplayed everything else. A pile of cold brown rice with a few chopped vegetables and some soy sauce or a mound of wheat berries with vinaigrette is about as one-dimensional as it gets.

As great as the grains are, they cannot stand alone; they are role players. They need vegetables, fruits, meat or fish, and they need well-thought-out sauces. As with plain rice, there’s nothing wrong with any of these under a stir-fry, or with a pat of butter for that matter (and plenty of salt and pepper). But if you want a grain that people will really notice, you have to treat it right.

That’s what I’ve tried to do here. There’s a mash-up of a niçoise salad, with the tuna in a powerful vinaigrette, half of which gets tossed with farro. (Any hearty grain could take its place: one of the many “brown” rices, spelt, kamut, wheat. Farro is interesting in that it’s relatively fast-cooking for a whole grain.)

The millet with corn, mango, shrimp and arugula — and peaches! (or mango) — is a riot of color and flavor and, I think, the best use of millet I’ve ever found. Here its grassiness seems an advantage rather than a drawback. If you don’t want millet, or don’t have it, I’d go with couscous.

Finally, there’s a puffed brown rice salad. You can shoot white rice from cannons (or however it’s done), load it up with sugar and call it breakfast cereal. Or you can treat brown rice the same way, forget the sugar and turn it into something that’s as amusing as it is delicious.

Yes, there is a load of big-flavored and interesting ingredients here. But the point isn’t just to eat whole grains “because they’re healthy.” The point is to enjoy them because they’re good.



Millet with Corn, Mango, and Shrimp

  • 1 cup millet
  • Salt
  • 2 tablespoons neutral oil 
  • 4 ears fresh corn, shucked, with kernels stripped off cobs
  • 1 tablespoon cumin seeds
  • Freshly ground black pepper
  • 8 ounces peeled shrimp, roughly chopped
  • 1 small red onion, chopped
  • 1 mango or 2 peaches, peeled and chopped
  • 4 cups arugula
  • ½ cup basil, chopped
  • Juice of 2 limes
  • 3 tablespoons olive oil

Put the millet and a large pinch salt into a medium saucepan with water to cover by about an inch. Bring to a boil, then adjust the heat so the mixture bubbles gently. Cook, stirring occasionally until the millet is tender, 20 to 30 minutes. Add water if necessary to keep the grains covered; if any liquid remains by the time the millet is tender, strain it out.

While the millet cooks, put 1 tablespoon neutral oil in a large skillet over high heat. When hot, add the kernels and cook, shaking the pan occasionally. Keep the corn in a flat layer until all of the corn kernels are deeply browned (or even lightly charred) on at least one side. Add the cumin seeds and cook, stirring, until fragrant, about a minute. Sprinkle with salt and pepper, transfer to a serving bowl and wipe out the skillet.

Put the remaining tablespoon of neutral oil into the skillet. When it’s hot, add the shrimp, sprinkle with salt and pepper, and cook, stirring occasionally, until the shrimp are pink all over and just cooked through, 2 to 3 minutes. Add them to the bowl with the corn.

When the millet is tender, add it to the bowl along with the onion, mango or peach, arugula, basil, lime juice, and olive oil. Taste and adjust the seasoning. Serve warm or at room temperature.

Yield: 4-6 servings


Farro Niçoise

  • 1 cup farro Salt 
  • 1 pound green beans, trimmed 
  • 3 anchovy fillets 
  • 1/3 cup olive oil, plus more if needed 
  • Zest of 1 lemon 
  • Juice of 2 lemons, plus more if needed 
  • 1 teaspoon Dijon mustard 
  • 1 shallot, peeled and roughly chopped 
  • 1 tablespoon capers 
  • 1 (6-ounce) can good-quality tuna in olive oil 
  • ½ cup parsley leaves Ground black pepper 
  • 3 ripe tomatoes, cut into wedges 
  • 4 hard-cooked eggs, halved 
  • ½ cup niçoise or other black olives

Put the farro and a large pinch salt into a medium saucepan with water to cover by about an inch. Bring to a boil, then adjust the heat so the mixture bubbles gently. Cook, stirring occasionally, until the farro is tender but still has bite, 20 to 30 minutes. Add water if necessary to keep the grains covered; if any liquid remains by the time the farro is tender, strain it out.

2. Meanwhile, bring another medium pan of water to a boil and salt it. Add the green beans and cook until bright green and crisp-tender, 2 minutes or so, then plunge them into a bowl of ice water or run under cold water to cool them.

Put the anchovies, olive oil, lemon zest and juice, mustard, shallot, and capers into a food processor and purée. Chop the tuna and parsley by hand and mix them in. (Alternatively, add the parsley to the food processor and pulse to chop, then add the tuna and pulse, once or twice, to blend. Don’t purée the tuna, but chop it well.) The mixture should be pourable; if it isn’t, add lemon juice, olive oil or water to thin a bit. Add pepper, then taste and adjust the seasoning.

Toss the farro, warm, with about half the dressing. Taste and adjust the seasoning, and pile it on a platter. Arrange the green beans, tomatoes, eggs, and olives around the farro, as artfully as you like. Drizzle the remaining dressing over them and serve.

Yield: 4 servings


Puffed Rice with Chicken

  • 2 tablespoons olive oil 
  • 1 pound boneless chicken thighs, cut into small chunks 
  • Salt and black pepper 
  • ½ cup shredded unsweetened coconut 
  • 1 tablespoon curry powder 
  • 1 cup cooked or canned chickpeas, drained 
  • 1 carrot, chopped 
  • 1 cucumber, peeled and seeded if necessary, and chopped 
  • 1 large ripe tomato, cored and chopped 
  • ½ cup chopped scallions 
  • ½ cup coconut milk 
  • 3 tablespoons lime juice 
  • 3 cups puffed brown rice cereal 
  • ½ cup chopped fresh cilantro

Put the oil into a medium skillet over medium-high heat. When it’s hot, add the chicken; sprinkle with salt and pepper. Cook, stirring occasionally, until browned and cooked through, 5 to 10 minutes. Add the shredded coconut and curry powder. Cook, stirring to coat chicken, until curry is fragrant and coconut lightly toasted, a minute or two. Transfer to a large serving bowl; let cool for a few minutes.

Add the remaining ingredients to the bowl, and toss well to combine. Taste and adjust the seasoning, and let the salad sit for a few minutes (no more than 10) before serving.

Yield: 4-6 servings

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