Scientists use pig bladder to regrow patients’ muscles

Method a breakthrough in regenerating working tissue


PITTSBURGH — Medical scientists have figured out how to grow new muscle in injured patients by using extracellular matrix derived from pig bladder.

Nicholas Clark, a 34-year-old electrical engineer, was one of the first to benefit from the experimental procedure, which is the first time science has shown successful replacement of functional muscle in humans.

Mr. Clark was left with a chronic limp after a 2006 skiing injury involving a spiral fracture of the tibia and fibula in his lower left leg. It also left him without muscle in one of four muscle compartments in that leg, along with additional muscle loss.

After traditional surgery and extensive rehabilitation, he still had trouble with his stride, his balance, and pushing off with his left foot, forcing him to use a cane or ankle-foot orthotic device.

But in February, 2012, J. Peter Rubin, a University of Pittsburgh Medical Center surgeon and director of the university’s department of plastic surgery, performed the novel muscle-replacement surgery on Mr. Clark.

And it worked.

Mr. Clark’s leg hasn’t returned to full function, he said, but he can walk almost normally with ability to push off with his left foot. He also has better balance on his left leg. He can play table tennis and ride a bicycle, which he had difficulty doing prior to the surgery.

“Knowing what I know, I would never hesitate to have this done,” Mr. Clark said. “I know the viability of the surgery. If it’s an option for someone, I would recommend they do it.”

The team of researchers from the medical school and the McGowan Institute of Regenerative Medicine announced success on Wednesday in regenerating muscle volume in five patients, including Mr. Clark, all of whom had disabilities from severe muscle-loss injury, including battle wounds.

When a traumatic injury results in the loss of a large volume of muscle, the body usually can’t respond sufficiently to replace it. Scar tissue also can impair function.

But Stephen F. Badylak, deputy director of the McGowan Institute, Dr. Rubin, and their team used a quilt of extracellular matrix — collagen-based scaffolding that remains after all cells are removed from pig bladder tissue — as framework to generate muscle.

The matrix, naturally containing growth factors, is surgically placed under tension in the area where muscle was lost. By its nature, the matrix attracts stem cells and other progenitor cells from neighboring muscle, which signal the stem cells to turn into muscle cells. The tension in the matrix also alerts the new cells that they must bear weight and be flexible.

Eventually the matrix degrades as stem cells convert to muscle cells, which proceed to signal development of nerves and blood vessels. The result is regeneration of the patient’s own muscle.

The research was published Wednesday in the journal Science Translational Medicine. Since the study was completed, Dr. Badylak said, four other patients have successfully undergone the procedure.

As with Mr. Clark, patients experiencing the loss of muscle volume from injury traditionally undergo surgery followed by extensive rehabilitation. Typically, though, they fail to regain adequate function, especially when a large amount of muscle is missing.

In the study, three patients, one with a calf injury and two others with thigh injuries, had lost at least 25 percent of muscle volume in those areas, affecting foot control or hampering their ability to walk. The procedure allowed them to regenerate 25 percent to 50 percent of lost muscle, followed by up to 26 weeks of rehabilitation, beginning 48 hours after surgery. Dr. Badylak said the return of a portion of muscle volume is sufficient to restore functionality.

The project was done under a $3 million grant from the U.S. Defense Department.

The Block News Alliance consists of The Blade and the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. David Templeton is a reporter for the Post-Gazette.

Contact David Templeton at: or 412-263-1578.